The CCSS document reflects the influence of widely ranging opinions from all collaborators who submitted critiques and comments, including those of state departments of education, professional groups, university professors, advocacy groups, and publishers. Thus, the CCSS purported to be consistent with research on learning to read, write, and do math, but actually reflected current and popular ideas (and misunderstandings) about learning that were acceptable to a wide range of stakeholders in 2010. In this sense, the document represents a political (and philosophical) compromise. The CCSS, unfortunately, embody assumptions that have not been validated through research or that may even contradict the findings of research. For example, as Brady (2012, in this issue) notes, proficiency in rhyme production, as required in the CCSS, is not a prerequisite for learning to segment phonemes in spoken words and map them to graphemes. The requirement that first-graders read as much informational text as narrative may not make sense for students just learning to decode who need to take baby steps through our complex phonics system. Contrary to statements in the CCSS, fluency is not achieved at the end of second grade unless students are already proficient; rather, significant growth in fluency continues through grade 3 and levels off at about grade 5 (Hasbrouck & Tindal, 2006). In the area of written composition, the act of dictating or illustrating, as allowed by the CCSS in kindergarten, is not writing. Writing requires mastery of written symbol production (handwriting, spelling, punctuation) – which requires systematic instruction and practice before written composition is possible. Of most concern for students who struggle with language, reading, or writing, the CCSS state that all students should read text at grade level or above. This aspirational goal, while admirable, may lead to destructive consequences for the 40% who are below grade level and who are deemed “at risk” for reading failure according to predictive science (Torgesen, 2004). Of particular relevance to the community concerned with dyslexia, the standards provide no guidance and no links to research on individual variation and avoid recommending interventions for students who are functioning below grade level. The implication that these students will learn to read better if they are simply handed more complex and difficult texts, and asked to function like students who learn to read easily, is wishful – and harmful – thinking.